The Peltzman Effect: How Regulations Can Encourage Risky Behavior


Lucas A. Meyer


March 28, 2023

The Peltzman Effect is a well-established economic theory that explores the unanticipated consequences of safety regulations. Eminent economist Sam Peltzman introduced this theory in his 1975 paper “The Effects of Automobile Safety Regulation.” According to the theory, safety regulations implemented with the best intentions can potentially encourage risky behavior among individuals, thereby offsetting the intended safety benefits.

The Peltzman Effect argues that safety regulations often provide individuals with a false sense of security, leading them to engage in riskier behavior. For instance, drivers may become more reckless if their car has safety features such as airbags and seat belts. They may assume that they are protected in case of accidents and therefore, act negligently.

Moreover, the Peltzman Effect suggests that the impact of safety regulations can vary significantly depending on the type of regulation. Although mandatory seat belt laws have reduced fatalities and injuries in car accidents, they have also resulted in an increase in the number of accidents. This phenomenon is an excellent example of the Peltzman Effect, where some of the intended safety benefits are offset by the increased risk-taking behavior of individuals.

Despite some debate, the Peltzman Effect remains a crucial concept in economics. It highlights that policymakers must carefully consider the potential unintended consequences of regulations. Policymakers must aim to minimize any negative impacts on individuals and society by devising regulations that provide the intended safety benefits while discouraging risky behavior.

Note 1: this post is part of a series of experiments I’m doing with generative AI. I’m trying to iteratively collaborate with text and image generators and create articles that are 50%-70% written by me and the edited/improved by AI generators (currently GPT-3.5-Turbo and Stable Diffusion 2.1). I am still not loving it but will upgrade to GPT-4 really soon.

Note 2: If this worked, the “Disney Socialite” image I generated for this post is not wearning a seatbelt…